Cross-clustered model of frequency of home-based work participation in traditional off-work hours
A study was done to shed light on the determinants of working from home beyond the traditional office-based work hours. The frequency of work participation from home was examined for individuals who also have a traditional work pattern of traveling to an out-of-home work-place and a fixed number of work hours at the out-of-home workplace. The sample for the empirical analysis was drawn from the 2002 to 2003 Turin, Italy, survey of time use, which was designed and administered by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. The methodology recognizes both spatial and social clustering effects by using a cross-clustered ordered response structure to analyze the frequency of work participation from home during off-work periods. The model is estimated through the use of the inference technique of composite marginal likelihood, which represents a conceptually, pedagogically, and implementationally simpler procedure relative to traditional frequentist and Bayesian simulation techniques.